Albany County (/ˈɔːlbəni/ (listen) AWL-bə-nee) is a county in the state of New York, in the United States. Its northern border is formed by the Mohawk River, at its confluence with the Hudson River, which is on the east. As of the 2010 census, the population was 304,204. The county seat is Albany, the state capital of New York. As originally established by the English government in the colonial era, Albany County had an indefinite amount of land, but has had an area of 530 square miles (1,400 km) since March 3, 1888. The county is named for the Duke of York and of Albany, who became James II of England (James VII of Scotland).
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 533 square miles (1,380 km), of which 523 square miles (1,350 km) is land and 10 square miles (26 km) (2.0%) is water.
Albany County is in the east central part of New York, extending southward and westward from the point where the Mohawk River joins the Hudson River. Its eastern boundary is the Hudson; a portion of its northern boundary is the Mohawk.
The terrain of the county ranges from flat near the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers to high and hilly to the southwest, of the Helderberg Escarpment and the Helderberg Mountains. The highest point is one of several summits near Henry Hill at approximately 2,160 feet (658 m) above sea level; The lowest point is 62 feet (19 m) above sea level at the Hudson River’s southernmost extent in the county.
As of the census of 2010, there were 304,204 people, 124,682 households, and 74,521 families residing in the county. The population density was 563 people per square mile (217/km²). There were 134,072 housing units at an average density of 248 per square mile (96/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 78.2% White, 12.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.8% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. 4.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.2% were of Irish, 16.0% Italian, 11.0% German, 6.1% English and 5.1% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 90.4% spoke English, 2.7% Spanish and 1.0% Italian as their first language.
There were 124,682 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 22.6% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $42,935, and the median income for a family was $56,724. Males had a median income of $39,838 versus $30,127 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,345. About 7.2% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.