Allegany is a town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The population was 8,004 at the 2010 census.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 71.7 square miles (185.6 km²), of which, 71.2 square miles (184.3 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km²) of it (0.68%) is water.
The Allegheny River flows through the town. The Southern Tier Expressway (Interstate 86 and New York State Route 17) passes across the town. New York State Route 417 (Old State Road) parallels the Expressway, and New York State Route 16 passes through the southeast corner of the town.
The south town line is the border of McKean County, Pennsylvania.
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,230 people, 2,599 households, and 1,764 families residing in the town. The population density was 115.6 people per square mile (44.6/km²). There were 2,862 housing units at an average density of 40.2 per square mile (15.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.40% White, 0.79% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.32% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, and 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.94% of the population.
There were 2,599 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.1% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the town, the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 26.6% from 18 to 24, 19.4% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $38,818, and the median income for a family was $45,972. Males had a median income of $36,801 versus $24,420 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,667. About 3.1% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.