Alma is a town in Allegany County, New York, United States. The population was 842 at the 2010 census. The source of the town name is uncertain. It may come from the Latin word for “nourishing”, or it may be named for a city in Germany.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 36.5 square miles (95 km), of which 36.5 square miles (95 km) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km) (0.25%) is water.
Alma Hill, the wide rise which dominates the southern half of town, is at 2,548 feet (777 m) not only the highest point in Allegany County but the entire western half of the state. The section of Alma Hill Road that runs near the summit is, at approximately 2,500 feet (760 m), the highest free paved public road in the state outside of the Catskills.
The south town line is the Pennsylvania border.
New York State Route 417 (NY 417) crosses the north part of the town.
At the 2000 census, there were 847 people, 322 households and 243 families residing in the town. The population density was 23.2 per square mile (9.0/km²). There were 533 housing units at an average density of 14.6 per square mile (5.6/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.99% White, 0.12% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.24% from other races, and 1.06% from two or more races.
There were 322 households of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.5% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 2.99.
26.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.6 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $32,063 and the median family income was $35,833. Males had a median income of $31,023 compared with $17,778 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,061. About 8.0% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over.