Belfast (/ˈbɛl.fæst/ or /bəlˈfɑːst/) is a town in Allegany County, New York, United States. The town is in what is called the Southern Tier of the state. Its population was 1,663 at the 2010 census. It was named in 1825 after the city of Belfast, Ireland, because it had numerous residents of Scots-Irish ancestry from that area.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 36.5 square miles (95 km), of which 36.2 square miles (94 km) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km) (0.77%) is water.
The Genesee River flows northward through the northeast corner of the town and is partly paralleled by New York State Route 19, which intersects County Road 26 in Belfast hamlet.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,714 people, 651 households, and 417 families residing in the town. The population density was 47.3 people per square mile (18.3/km²). There were 945 housing units at an average density of 26.1 per square mile (10.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.31% White, 0.06% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.23% from other races, and 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.41% of the population.
There were 651 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.34.
In the town, the population was spread out with 31.7% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $30,909, and the median income for a family was $40,000. Males had a median income of $31,473 versus $21,971 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,803. About 11.8% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.9% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over.