Boylston is a town in Oswego County, New York, U.S.. The population was 549 at the 2010 census. The name is that of the first landowner of the tract that became the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 39.2 square miles (102 km), of which, 39.1 square miles (101 km) of it is land and 0.03% is water.
The north town line with part of the west town line is the border of Jefferson County, New York.
As of the census of 2000, there were 505 people, 193 households, and 137 families residing in the town. The population density was 12.9 people per square mile (5.0/km²). There were 333 housing units at an average density of 8.5 per square mile (3.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.02% White, 1.19% from other races, and 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.18% of the population.
There were 193 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.0% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.06.
In the town, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.3 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $39,375, and the median income for a family was $44,792. Males had a median income of $32,083 versus $25,625 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,360. About 6.0% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.