Caledonia is a town in Livingston County, New York, United States. The population was 4,255 at the 2010 census.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.3 square miles (114.7 km²), of which, 44.1 square miles (114.3 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.5 km²) of it (0.43%) is water.
The north town line is the border of Monroe County, and the west town line is the border of Genesee County.
New York State Route 5 is an east-west route in the town. US Route 20 also crosses the town from west to east. New York State Route 36, a north-south highway, intersects both of these highways.
The Genesee River helps define the east town line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,567 people, 1,671 households, and 1,268 families residing in the town. The population density was 103.5 people per square mile (40.0/km²). There were 1,750 housing units at an average density of 39.7 per square mile (15.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 94.11% White, 3.50% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, and 1.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population.
There were 1,671 households (out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them), 61.3% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.1% were non-families. 19.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73, and the average family size was 3.13.
In the town, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $46,359, and the median income for a family was $50,607. Males had a median income of $37,287 versus $28,159 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,611. About 3.6% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 0.8% of those age 65 or over.
Caledonia New York neighborhoods include: Caledonia West, Cal-Mum SOUTH, Cameron Pl