Caneadea is a town in Allegany County, New York, United States. The population was 2,542 at the 2010 census.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 36.3 square miles (94.1 km), of which 35.6 square miles (92.3 km) is land and 0.69 square miles (1.8 km), or 1.91%, is water.
The town developed along the Genesee River, an important and historic Western New York river, which had also been valued by the Seneca. Rushford Lake is partly at the town’s west line, and Caneadea Creek is an important stream in the town.
New York State Route 19 passes through the town (north-south) and intersects New York State Route 243 north of Canaeadea village.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,694 people, 650 households, and 436 families residing in the town. The population density was 75.8 people per square mile (29.3/km²). There were 1,098 housing units at an average density of 30.9 per square mile (11.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.33% White, 1.00% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.56% from other races, and 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.26% of the population.
There were 650 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.9% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the town, the population was spread out with 18.4% under the age of 18, 40.9% from 18 to 24, 16.1% from 25 to 44, 13.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.5 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $31,065, and the median income for a family was $39,667. Males had a median income of $29,643 versus $21,563 for females. The per capita income for the town was $10,010. About 12.7% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 1.0% of those age 65 or over.