Carlton is a town in Orleans County, New York, United States. The population was 2,994 at the 2010 census. The name is derived from Carleton, a shipbuilding district near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.5 square miles (115 km), of which 43.7 square miles (113 km) is land and 0.8 square miles (2.1 km) (1.86%) is water.
The Oak Orchard River enters Lake Ontario in the north part of Carlton, as does Johnson Creek. The Lake Ontario State Parkway begins in the town and ends in Monroe County, New York. New York State Route 18 is the major east-west route traversing the town, while north-south Routes NY-98 and NY-279 have their northern termini in Carlton.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,960 people, 1,103 households, and 793 families residing in the town. The population density was 67.7 people per square mile (26.1/km²). There were 1,619 housing units at an average density of 37.0 per square mile (14.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 94.32% White, 3.24% African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, and 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population.
There were 1,103 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.1% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the town, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.8 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $40,660, and the median income for a family was $42,028. Males had a median income of $32,188 versus $23,448 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,439. About 7.9% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.5% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over.