Cayuga is a village in Cayuga County, New York, United States. The population was 549 at the 2010 census. The village derives its name from the indigenous Cayuga people and the lake named after them.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Cayuga has a total area of 1.4 square miles (3.5 km), of which 0.89 square miles (2.3 km) is land and 0.46 square miles (1.2 km), or 33.81%, is water.
Cayuga is located on the eastern shore of the north end of Cayuga Lake.
New York State Route 90 is a north–south highway through the village.
As of the census of 2000, there were 509 people, 203 households, and 137 families residing in the village. The population density was 554.4 people per square mile (213.6/km²). There were 240 housing units at an average density of 261.4 per square mile (100.7/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 99.02% White, 0.39% African American, 0.39% Native American, and 0.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.39% of the population.
There were 203 households out of which 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.5% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.17.
In the village, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $37,679, and the median income for a family was $50,156. Males had a median income of $30,769 versus $21,667 for females. The per capita income for the village was $17,894. About 1.5% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.