Cuba is a town on the western border of Allegany County, New York, United States. The village of Cuba lies within its borders. The federally recognized tribe of Seneca Native Americans has a reservation on the western town line. As of the 2010 Census, the total population was 3,243.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.8 square miles (93 km), of which 35.1 square miles (91 km) is land and 0.7 square miles (1.8 km) (1.95%) is water.
The west town line is the border of Cattaraugus County.
The Southern Tier Expressway (Interstate 86 and New York State Route 17) pass through the town, running east-west. New York State Route 305 is a major north-south highway that intersects New York State Route 446 in the village of Cuba.
Cuba is on the main line of the Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, which operates the former Erie Railroad between Hornell, New York and Meadville, Pennsylvania.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,392 people, 1,336 households, and 915 families residing in the town. The population density was 96.6 people per square mile (37.3/km²). There were 1,710 housing units at an average density of 48.7 per square mile (18.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.91% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.27% from other races, and 0.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.09% of the population.
There were 1,336 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.5% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the town, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, and 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $33,939, and the median income for a family was $37,969. Males had a median income of $29,291 versus $21,115 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,247. About 6.0% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.