Essex is a town in Essex County, New York, United States overlooking Lake Champlain. The population was 671 at the 2010 census. The town is named after locations in England.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.6 square miles (97.4 km), of which 31.6 square miles (81.9 km) is land and 6.0 square miles (15.5 km), or 15.88%, is water.
The eastern border of Essex is the Vermont state line in the middle of Lake Champlain.
New York State Route 22 is a north-south highway in Essex.
As of the census of 2000, there were 713 people, 302 households, and 202 families residing in the town. The population density was 22.5 people per square mile (8.7/km²). There were 522 housing units at an average density of 16.5 per square mile (6.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 99.7% White, 0.1% Native American, and 0.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.1% of the population.
There were 302 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.1% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.79.
In the town, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 29.0% from 45 to 64, and 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $37,596, and the median income for a family was $40,104. Males had a median income of $26,905 versus $19,583 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,087. About 10.8% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.