Gouverneur is a town in St. Lawrence County, New York, United States. The population was 7,085 at the 2010 census. The town is named after statesman and landowner Gouverneur Morris.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 72.4 square miles (187.6 km²), of which, 71.5 square miles (185.3 km²) of it is land and 0.9 square miles (2.3 km²) of it (1.24%) is water.
The Oswegatchie River flows through the town in two directions, westward in the south and eastward in the north.
U.S. Route 11, New York State Route 58, and New York State Route 812 converge at Gouverneur village. NY-58 and NY-812 are conjoined southwest of the village, and US-11 and NY-812 are conjoined northeast of the village. Due to the low area population and relatively little through traffic, the area’s highways and the Gouverneur Town Court are not that busy.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,418 people, 2,484 households, and 1,674 families residing in the town. The population density was 103.7 people per square mile (40.0/km²). There were 2,724 housing units at an average density of 38.1 per square mile (14.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 85.43% White, 9.46% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 2.95% from other races, and 1.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.86% of the population.
There were 2,484 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.06.
In the town, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 33.8% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 124.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 129.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $27,701, and the median income for a family was $31,212. Males had a median income of $31,280 versus $19,394 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,820. About 18.9% of families and 19.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over.