Groton is a town in Tompkins County, New York, United States. The population was 5,950 at the 2010 census. The name is taken from Groton, Massachusetts.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 128.4 km (49.6 sq mi). 128.3 km (49.5 sq mi) of it is farmland and 0.1 km (0.04 sq mi) of it (0.10%) is water.
The north town line is the border of Cayuga County, and the east side town line is the border of Cortland County. The southern border is with the Town of Dryden and the western border with the Town of Lansing.
Groton is in the Finger Lakes region of central New York State.
North-south New York State Route 38 intersects New York State Route 222 at Groton village. New York State Route 34B is an east-west highway by the south town line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,794 people, 2,168 households, and 1,543 families residing in the town. The population density was 116.9 people per square mile (45.1/km²). There were 2,287 housing units at an average density of 46.2 per square mile (17.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.38% White, 0.64% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.26% from other races, and 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population.
There were 2,168 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.8% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.09.
In the town, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $42,407, and the median income for a family was $50,057. Males had a median income of $31,890 versus $23,642 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,075. About 4.8% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over.