The Town of Hempstead is one of the three towns in Nassau County, New York, United States, occupying the southwestern part of the county, in the western half of Long Island. Twenty-two incorporated villages (one of which is named Hempstead) are completely or partially within the town. The town’s combined population was 759,757 at the 2010 census, which is the majority of the population of the county and by far the largest of any town in New York.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 191.3 square miles (495.5 km²). 120.0 square miles (310.7 km²) of it is land and 71.4 square miles (184.8 km²) of it (37.30%) is water.
The western town line is the border of Queens County, New York, in New York City. Its northern border, with the Town of North Hempstead and the Town of Oyster Bay, is along the main line of the Long Island Rail Road and along Old Country Road in Garden City heading east towards the Wantagh Parkway. Its eastern border, also with the Town of Oyster Bay, runs parallel to (and several hundred feet west of) Route 107. To the south is the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Atlantic Beach, Lido Beach, Point Lookout, and Jones Beach.
The most popular beach on the east coast of the United States, Jones Beach State Park is located in Hempstead. The beach is a popular destination for Long Islanders and residents of New York. The beach itself receives about six million visitors a year.
As of the census of 2010, there were 759,757 people, 246,828 households, and 193,513 families residing in the town. The population density was 6,301.3 inhabitants per square mile (2,433.0/km²). There were 252,286 housing units at an average density of 2,103.0 per square mile (812.0/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 59.9% White, 16.5% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.2% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.5% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.4% of the population.
There were 246,828 households out of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.6% were non-families. 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.41.
In the town, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males.
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $84,362, and the median income for a family was $96,080. Males had a median income of $50,818 versus $36,334 for females. The per capita income for the town was $28,153. About 4.0% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.