Lancaster is a town in Erie County, New York, United States, centered 14 miles east of downtown Buffalo. Lancaster is an outer ring suburb of Buffalo. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 41,604.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.93 square miles (98.25 km), of which 37.70 square miles (97.65 km) is land and 0.24 square miles (0.61 km), or 0.62%, is water.
The town is located on the northern and eastern side of Erie County. The center of Lancaster is 14 miles (23 km) east of downtown Buffalo.
Much of Lancaster is highly suburbanized, but the eastern section of the town, notably the area east of County Route 242 (Bowen Road), is only starting to undergo development, retaining a somewhat-rural character.
The western town line is marked by NY 78 and, south of NY 130, US 20. The New York State Thruway (Interstate 90) crosses the northern part of the town. NY 33 crosses the town immediately south of the Thruway, and US 20 crosses the central part of the town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 39,019 people, 15,053 households, and 10,506 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,031.1 people per square mile (398.1/km²). There were 15,627 housing units at an average density of 413.0 per square mile (159.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.00% White, 0.81% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, and 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population.
There were 15,053 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $48,990, and the median income for a family was $59,712. Males had a median income of $41,501 versus $28,049 for females. The per capita income for the town was $21,723. About 2.5% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.