Lebanon is a town in Madison County, New York, United States. The population was 1,332 at the 2010 census. The town is believed to be named after Lebanon, Connecticut.
The south town line is the border of Chenango County, New York.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 43.7 square miles (113 km), of which, 43.4 square miles (112 km) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km) of it (0.57%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there are 1,329 people, 506 households, and 359 families residing in the town. The population density is 30.6 people per square mile (11.8/km²). There are 631 housing units at an average density of 14.5 per square mile (5.6/km²). The racial makeup of the town is 98.65% White, 0.08% African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.00% from other races, and 0.53% from two or more races. 1.66% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 506 households out of which 35.6% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% are married couples living together, 7.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 28.9% are non-families. 23.3% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.63 and the average family size is 3.09.
In the town, the population is spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 37 years. For every 100 females, there are 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 94.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town is $34,643, and the median income for a family is $39,038. Males have a median income of $29,205 versus $26,771 for females. The per capita income for the town is $15,690. 13.9% of the population and 9.7% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 20.6% are under the age of 18 and 11.6% are 65 or older.