Little Valley is a town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The population was 1,740 at the 2010 census. The town is named after its local geographical setting, a relative comparison of two tributaries (the other being the neighboring Great Valley) of the Allegheny River.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 29.8 square miles (77.2 km), of which 0.008 square miles (0.02 km), or 0.02%, is water.
New York State Route 242 and New York State Route 353 are major trunk roads through the town. They converge at Killborn Corners just east of the village of Little Valley. County Routes 88 (Baker Road) and 96 (Killborn Corners Road) act as bypasses. County Route 15 (Dublin Road), which picks up where Route 88 leaves off, continues northeast parallel to Route 242 between Little Valley and Ellicottville. County Routes 5 and 14 start in the northwest corner of the town and head toward New Albion and East Otto, respectively.
The Pat McGee Trail, a hiking and snowmobile rail trail that follows the path of the now-removed railroad, runs through the town parallel to Route 353. The Conservation Trail, a subset of the Finger Lakes Trail (itself a subset of the North Country Trail), passes through the town connecting the state forests therein; the two trails share a roughly one-mile wrong-way concurrency in the town.
Little Valley Creek flows through the town, as does a small tributary named Lees Hollow in the west central part of town. Whig Street Creek runs northeast-to-southwest across the town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,788 people, 688 households, and 462 families residing in the town. The population density was 59.7 people per square mile (23.1/km²). There were 845 housing units at an average density of 28.2 per square mile (10.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.92% White, 1.29% Black or African American, 1.23% Native American, 0.06% from other races, and 1.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.23% of the population.
There were 688 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.8% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the town, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.8 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $31,000, and the median income for a family was $37,361. Males had a median income of $30,100 versus $21,897 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,191. About 8.8% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.