Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 73,442. Its county seat is Wampsville. The county is named after James Madison, fourth President of the United States of America, and was first formed in 1806.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 661 square miles (1,710 km), of which 655 square miles (1,700 km) is land and 6.4 square miles (17 km) (1.0%) is water.
Madison County is located in central New York State, just east of Syracuse, north of Binghamton, and slightly north of due west from Albany. Madison County contains the geographic center of the state at Pratts Hollow in the Town of Eaton.
Oneida Lake and Oneida Creek define part of the northern boundary. The Great Swamp, formerly located south of the lake, was a rich wetlands habitat important to many species of birds and wildlife. This was drained by local and state construction projects in the early decades of the twentieth century, chiefly by Italian immigrants. The fertile soil supported high production of onions and other commodity crops, and the Italian families grew wealthy from their work. The area was known as “Black Beach” for its mucklands. Chittenango Creek defines much of the western boundary.
As of the census of 2000, there were 69,441 people, 25,368 households, and 17,580 families residing in the county. The population density was 106 people per square mile (41/km²). There were 28,646 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile (17/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 96.49% White, 1.32% African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, and 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population; 16.1% were of German, 15.6% English, 15.5% Irish, 12.1% Italian, and 8.0% American ancestry according to Census 2000. Of these 95.6% spoke English and 1.9% Spanish as their first language.
There were 25,368 households out of which 33.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.70% were non-families. Of all households 24.50% were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, and 12.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $40,184, and the median income for a family was $47,889. Males had a median income of $33,069 versus $25,026 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,105. About 6.30% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over.
Much of Madison County is rural. However, Oneida and the other towns along NY Route 5 are suburbs of Syracuse, as is Cazenovia.