Madison is a town in Madison County, New York, United States. The population was 3,008 at the 2010 census.
The north and east town lines are the border of Oneida County, New York. US Route 20 passes across the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 41.4 square miles (107.2 km²), of which, 40.9 square miles (105.9 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km²) of it (1.23%) is water.
U.S. Route 20, conjoined with New York State Route 12B forms an east-west highway across the town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,801 people, 1,129 households, and 779 families residing in the town. The population density was 68.5 people per square mile (26.4/km²). There were 1,325 housing units at an average density of 32.4 per square mile (12.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.82% White, 0.32% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, and 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.75% of the population.
There were 1,129 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.0% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the town, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $35,889, and the median income for a family was $41,630. Males had a median income of $29,487 versus $23,750 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,468. About 9.6% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.