Montezuma is a town in Cayuga County, New York, United States. The population was 1,277 at the 2010 census.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Montezuma has a total area of 18.7 square miles (48.5 km), of which 18.2 square miles (47.2 km) is land and 0.46 square miles (1.2 km), or 2.53%, is water.
Most of the west town line, partly marked by the Seneca River and the Cayuga–Seneca Canal, is the border of Seneca County. The northwest town line is the border of Wayne County, also marked by the Seneca River along with the Erie Canal.
The New York State Thruway (Interstate 90) crosses the town. Conjoined US 20 and New York State Route 5 pass through the southwest corner of the town. New York State Route 90 is a north-south highway that intersects east-west New York State Route 31 north of Montezuma village.
The eastern part of the large and important Montezuma Swamp is in the Town; it is part of the Atlantic Flyway for migratory birds. Although 70 percent of the swamp’s original 40,000 acres were drained for agricultural cultivation in the 19th and 20th centuries, the remaining portions are critical habitat to migratory birds and many animals.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,431 people, 498 households, and 384 families residing in the town. The population density was 78.2 people per square mile (30.2/km²). There were 547 housing units at an average density of 29.9 per square mile (11.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.39% White, 0.07% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.21% Asian, and 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.35% of the population.
There were 498 households out of which 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.7% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.22.
In the town, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $40,769, and the median income for a family was $44,808. Males had a median income of $31,518 versus $22,885 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,551. About 10.7% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.3% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over.