Osceola is a town in Lewis County, New York, United States. The population was 229 at the 2010 census. The town is named for the Seminole fighter, Osceola.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 87.0 square miles (225 km), of which 87.0 square miles (225 km) is land and 0.01% is water.
The south town line is the border of Oneida County, and the west town line is the border of Oswego County.
The Salmon River flows across the southern part of the town.
At the 2000 census, there were 265 people, 112 households and 74 families residing in the town. The population density was 3.0 per square mile (1.2/km²). There were 402 housing units at an average density of 4.6 per square mile (1.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 99.62% White, 0.38% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.38% of the population.
There were 112 households of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.9% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.88.
24.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.0 males.
The median household income was $35,469, and the median family income was $38,750. Males had a median income of $31,125 versus $20,750 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,467. About 13.7% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 15.2% of those sixty five or over.