Rutland is a town in Jefferson County, New York, United States. The population was 3,060 at the 2010 census.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 45.4 square miles (117.5 km), of which 45.1 square miles (116.8 km) are land and 0.3 square miles (0.7 km), or 0.61%, are water. The Black River defines the north town line, and most of the south town line is the county line of Lewis County.
New York State Route 12 and New York State Route 126 are east-west highways through the central part of the town. New York State Route 3 follows the south bank of the Black River.
The community of Black River set itself apart from Rutland and the town of Le Ray by incorporating as a village in 1891.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,959 people, 1,097 households, and 840 families residing in the town. The population density was 65.5 people per square mile (25.3/km²). There were 1,178 housing units at an average density of 26.1 per square mile (10.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.34% White, 1.49% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, and 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.82% of the population.
There were 1,097 households out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.1% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.4% were non-families. 17.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the town, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $36,417, and the median income for a family was $38,906. Males had a median income of $30,040 versus $21,450 for females. The per capita income for the town was $14,919. About 10.3% of families and 12.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.7% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over.