Salamanca (Seneca: Onë:dagö:h) is a city in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States, inside the Allegany Indian Reservation, one of two governed by the Seneca Nation of New York. The population was 5,815 at the 2010 census. It was named after José de Salamanca, a Spanish nobleman and cabinet minister of the mid-19th century.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 6.24 square miles (16.15 km), of which 5.99 square miles (15.52 km) is land and 0.24 square miles (0.63 km), or 3.88%, is water.
Salamanca is within the Allegany Indian Reservation of the Seneca Nation of New York (one of the six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy). The city population of about 5,800 is about 17% Native American; this does not include Seneca people living in the nearby hamlets of Jimerson Town (one of the two capitals of the nation) and Kill Buck. The city lies along the Allegany River and is adjacent to Allegany State Park.
The Southern Tier Expressway (Interstate 86 and New York State Route 17) pass south of the city, as do U.S. Route 219 and New York State Route 417.
Salamanca serves as a hub for the area’s public bus service. Coach USA, Fullington Trailways, the Seneca Transit System, and the Olean Area Transit System all converge on the city. The city’s only active rail depot is on the east side of the city, serviced by the Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad.
As of the 2010 United States census, Salamanca had a population of 5,815. The ethnic and racial makeup of the population was 75.5% non-Hispanic white, 0.9% African-American, 16.9% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.8% reporting two or more races, and 3.3% Hispanic or Latino of any race.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,097 people, 2,469 households, and 1,575 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,015.6 people per square mile (392.3/km²). There were 2,749 housing units at an average density of 457.9 per square mile (176.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.26% White, 0.66% Black or African American, 20.74% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, and 1.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.82% of the population.
There were 2,469 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.2% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.2% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $24,579, and the median income for a family was $30,996. Males had a median income of $25,549 versus $19,180 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,812. About 18.0% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.7% of those under age 18 and 15.9% of those age 65 or over.