Sherburne is a town in Chenango County, New York, United States. The population was 4,048 at the 2010 census. The town contains two villages, one named Sherburne and the other named Earlville. The town is at the north border of Chenango County.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town of Sherburne has a total area of 43.6 square miles (112.9 km), of which 0.02 square miles (0.05 km), or 0.05%, is water.
The Chenango River, a tributary of the Susquehanna River, flows southwards through the town.
The north town line is the border of Madison County.
New York State Route 12, a north-south highway, intersects New York State Route 12B north of Sherburne village and intersects New York State Route 80 within the village.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,979 people, 1,619 households, and 1,065 families residing in the town. The population density was 91.3 people per square mile (35.3/km²). There were 1,770 housing units at an average density of 40.6 per square mile (15.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.74% White, 0.23% Black or African American, 0.03% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, and 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population.
There were 1,619 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the town, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $31,841, and the median income for a family was $39,094. Males had a median income of $30,477 versus $22,458 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,281. About 13.3% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.4% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over.