Spencer is a town in Tioga County, New York, United States. The population was 3,153 at the 2010 census. The town and its primary village are named after Ambrose Spencer. It lies on the western border of the county and is south of Ithaca, New York. Inside the town is the Village of Spencer. The village of Candor borders the town to the east and south east, with Waverly to the southwest, Van Etten to the west, Danby to the North.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 49.9 square miles (129 km), of which 49.5 square miles (128 km) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km), or 0.68%, is water.
The eastern town line is the border of Chemung County and the northern town line is the border of Tompkins County.
Conjoined New York State Route 34 and New York State Route 96 divide at Spencer village.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,979 people, 1,153 households, and 817 families residing in the town. The population density was 60.1 people per square mile (23.2/km²). There were 1,271 housing units at an average density of 25.7 per square mile (9.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.28% White, 0.67% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.47% from other races, and 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.28% of the population.
There were 1,153 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.1% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.03.
In the town, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $37,432, and the median income for a family was $41,025. Males had a median income of $31,277 versus $25,508 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,312. About 6.2% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.5% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over.